GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA
Humans are able to make changes in their environment and they can use natural resources as per their wishes. The credit for the naming of geography and the systematic form of this subject goes to the inhabitants of Greece. Hickettius is considered to be the father of geography.
“Geography is an independent subject that aims to provide knowledge to every object in the entire world, place, ocean, organisms, celestial bodies, vegetation, fruits and all other sectors . ”
‘Geography is the science, in which the entire world is recognized as an independent planet and its all the symptoms, events etc. are studied.
In ‘geography’, the part of the earth is assessed, which is the habitable place of humanity ‘.
INDIA’S NOMENCLATURE ( NOMENCLATURE OF INDIA )
Air Purana mentions the word of India Year, which was called the empire by the victorious region. The name of the country was named after Bharat, son of King Dushyant. People from Persia (modern Iran) first entered the Indus Valley.
These people used to change the nature of Sinhu Hindu for the residents of here. The country of Hindus was given the name of Hindustan. When Arya came to India, he was known as a lot of tribes in different regions of the country, known as Aryavarta (the country of Aryans).
According to Jain mythology, the term ‘bismut’ has been used in India for Hindu and Buddhist texts. The word India used for India is from the Greek language Indos. Due to the French influence, the British named Inde as the basis and nominated India.
James Alexander, in his description, removed the word of Hindu and addressed the country as Indu, then changed later to India.
INDIA’S POSITION AND EXPANSION ( INDIA’S & LOCATION EXTENSION )
India is a quadrangle figure country. It is located in the middle of South Asia. It is located in the east of Indo-China primordium and the Arabian peninsula in the west. India is a country of latitudinal latitudes and is in the intermediate position of the eastern hemisphere from the horizontal view.
There is almost 30 degree difference in the latitudes of latitude and longitude of India. In the north-south direction, its length is 3214 km is. India’s transnational expansion, from the Rann of Kutch to Arunachal Pradesh, its width is 2933 km east-west. is.
There is a difference of 45 minutes between the days of the day and night in Indian regions located near the Equatorial fast, while the difference becomes 5 hours on the last boundary.
The earth revolves around 360 degrees long east from west to east on its axis in 24 hours. Thus, it takes 4 minutes to cross 1 degree longitude.
To overcome this shortcoming of time difference, like other countries, India has also selected a standard midday line. The local time on the standard mid-line line is considered as the standard time of the country.
Under the mutual understanding of the countries of the world, the standard post-extinction is chosen on the coefficient of 7 ° 30-minute longitude. This is the reason that the longitude line of 82 degrees 30 minutes east has been chosen as India’s standard posthumous.
India’s standard time has been considered as the longitude of 82 degrees 30 minutes east passing through Mirzapur near Allahabad, which passes through 5 states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
The geography of India Geography of India in Hindi
Geography of India in Hindi
Climate is studied under climatology. In the atmospheric conditions under climatology, the systematic study of weather and climate is done. Weather is the study of the ephemeral phase of the atmosphere while long-term learning is under the climate. The sum total of weather conditions and variations in a vast area over 30 years is known as the summation.
The nature of the Indian monsoon ( Nature Of Indian Mansoon )
1). The beginning of monsoon and its vicinity
At the end of the 19th century, it was interpreted that in the summer months, the different heating of the site and the sea itself creates favorable conditions to move towards the sub-continent of monsoon winds. In the month of April and May, when the sun shines perpendicularly on the cancer line.
Large plots situated in the north of the Indian Ocean become very hot, resulting in an intense low pressure area developed in the north-western part of the sub-Mahaadep.
The south-western monsoon reaches Kerala coast on June 1 and soon between 10 and 13 June, these Adar Pawan reach Mumbai and Kolkata. By the 15th of July, the whole subcontinent suffers from southwest monsoon.
2). Rainforest and monsoon rain
India has 2 mechanisms for bringing rain, the first is the tropical barrier, which is born in the Bay of Bengal or even earlier in the Southern China Sea and rains in the plains of Northern India.
The second system is the southern-western monsoon which arises from the Arabian Sea, which is the highest mountain along with the Western Ghats of India, because it is blocked by wet winds and rising up with the support of the Ghats.
3). Break in monsoon
After rain for a few days in the south-west monsoon period, if there is no rainfall for one or two weeks, it is called monsoon break. These segments are for different reasons in different areas.
- Separation of monsoon in the vast plain of northern India is due to the reduction of the number of tropical cyclones.
- Monsoon separation on the west coast occurs when Ard winds flowing parallel to the coast.
- Monsoon severance occurs in Rajasthan when the arterial temperature of the atmosphere at the lower levels of the atmosphere prevents the rise of wet winds from rising.
4). Withdrawal of monsoon
The withdrawal or return of monsoon is called the withdrawal of monsoon. From the beginning of 1st September, the monsoon starts retreating in north-west India and by October 15 it is left out of all India except South India.
Returning monsoon winds take water vapor from the Bay of Bengal and do rain in Tamil Nadu in the form of north-eastern monsoon.
Cloudburst ( Cloud Burst )
In summers, on the mountainous areas, the winds of upstream from above side are above the hills, which is a strong voice, which makes the windows disappear, it is called the blowing of clouds.
Relative humidity increases by 2 humid air amounts, increases acceleration at very fast speed, there is rains of rain water, which leads to land erosion and destruction to settlements, farms and roads.
The eruption of a cloud is a natural phenomenon which occurs in a thickly populated area, whose height is 15 km above sea level. Happens till then. On June 16, 2013, the incident of cloudburst in Uttarakhand was named Tsunami.
Geography of India in Hindi
The winds of the southern hemisphere coming from the Indian Ocean cross the equator and enter the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, where they are found in the present air circulation over India.
Due to passing through equatorial hot sea currents, these winds bring abundant amounts of moisture with them.
By crossing the equator, their direction is called the southwest monsoon.
By entering the southern hemisphere from the Indian Ocean, turning towards its right, when it rises suddenly on the first of June, it collides with India’s southernmost smallest Mahendragiri, which is called Monsoon Explosion.
South-West monsoon rises to Mahendragiri by dividing the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal into two branches and rains in Rajasthan.
The geography of India Geography of India in Hindi
India’s Soil (Soil)
The soil is a layer of unorganized substances on the dwelling of the earth, which is made of rocks and biomass through the factors of atrophy and disintegration.
Weathering and erosion factors break the earth’s rocks and make it powder. In this powder, the thorns and ribs of the flora and fauna also come together, which is called humus.
The mineral mixed in the rocks and the powder mixed in the powder add together to the plants and plants. Natural efficacy of soil is called fertility.
The word soil is derived from the Latin language, the word “Solam”, which means Floor. The scientific study of soil is called pedogogy.
1). Alluvial Soil
In all the soils found in India, alluvial soil is the most important. It covers about 40% of India’s area. Alluvial soil is found in the entire vast plain.
This soil is formed by depositing the depression of Sutlej, Ganga, Brahmaputra and its tributaries from the Himalayas and adjacent areas.
Zlod Mitti is found in the eastern coastal plain especially in the delta region of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri rivers, hence it is also known as Deltai soil.
Potassium is high in potassium and phosphorus is less and its color is like a light brown.
2). Black or Soil
In the Cretaceous Period, the basal deposits of basaltic lava and their soil have been created from time to time. In this, the parts of iron are relatively relative. Black soil is the main soil of the Deccan Plateau. Due to the color of this soil being black, this black soil is called. This soil is deep and inaccessible, when wet, it becomes flat on the soil and shrinks while drying.
In dry season these cracks fall into these soils. It seems like it has grown itself in soil. Due to the slow absorption of moisture and the slow pace of moisture decay, moisture remains in black soil for a long period of time. Due to which crops also get moisture in the summer.
It is suitable for soil cotton cultivation. Due to the production of cotton, this soil is also called black cotton soil.
3). Red-Yellow Soil
The development of red-yellow soil is more in areas where ravender igneous rocks are found. Red loam soil is found in a long strip of the Giridip area of the Western Ghats. The red color of this soil is due to the extensive diffusion of iron.
Yellow soil is found to be yellow due to hydroelectricity. There are red and yellow soil fertilizers with fine particles, on the contrary, the thick particle soil is inertial.
4). Lateite Soil
Latereite soil develops in areas of high temperatures and heavy rainfall. This is the result of acute detection due to soil tropical rain. Selected with rain water and the silica particles become absorbed and the oxygen and aluminum particles of iron remain in the soil.
There is a shortage of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in this soil, but iron oxide and potash are abundant. These soils are not fertile enough. In Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, it is suitable for the cultivation of tree-bearing crops like cashew nuts.
5). Desert Soil
These soils are found in western Rajasthan, southern Haryana, southern Punjab and parts of western Uttar Pradesh. These sandy soil irrigated by blowing in the air can yield good yields.
Among these, mineral salts are found in excess quantities but they dissolve quickly in water. There is a shortage of life in these soil. Due to excessive dryness, their use in agriculture is rarely used.
VEGETABLE OF INDIA
Geography of India in Hindi
Plant groups are called vegetation In the natural vegetation, those plants are incorporated which grow in the wild without human help. By changing the structure and materials, such plants make themselves adaptable to the natural environment. There is a community of natural vegetation that has no intervention for long periods of time.
That part of the natural vegetation without human intervention is called anchored vegetation. Emperor Ashoka planted trees along the roads The Mughals also planted typical gardens of tree-bearing trees.
Various types of natural vegetation are found in India. Temperate vegetation flows on the Himalayan mountains. Tropical rain forests are found in Western Ghats and Andaman Nicobar Deep Group.
Variety of shrubs, cactus and prickly vegetation are found in the desert and argh-desert areas in tropical forests, mangroves and Rajasthan in delta areas. Variations in flora of India are found due to variation in soil and climate.
Geography of India in Hindi
Classification of Indian vegetation
1). Tropical Evergreen Forests
These forests are found in those parts of India where the average temperature is above 24 degree and the rainfall is 200 cm. Is more than. Therefore, there are trees that grow green throughout the year, hence these are called evergreen forests.
These forests are very dense, in which tall trees of 45 to 60 meters are found. These forests mainly grow palm, mahogany, coconut, ebony, ebony, bamboo and betel.
2). Tropical Deciduous Forests
In India, this type of forest is found in abundance. These forests are found in parts of India where rainfall ranges from 100 to 200 cm Happens till then.
These forests drop their leaves at the beginning of the summer so they are also called autumn or monsoon forests. These trees are not taller and dense.
In these forests, trees, years of age, teak, rosewood, sandalwood, mango, amla, mahua and haldu are found.
These types of forests are in the states of Odisha, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal, on the eastern shields of the western Ghats of Himalayas Giripad, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Karnataka, MaMaharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The timber of these forests is soft and durable.
3). Dry desert forest (Arid Thorny Forest)
This type of forest in dry parts of India where rainfall is 50 cm These forests are found where they are less than. Nature has given thorns to protect trees from evaporation and animals.
Forests of these parts are in the form of small trees or thickets. The bark of these trees is thick and leaves are thorns with leaves.
The thick bark protects from the heat of trees. Trees of acacia, dates, hawthorn, Khazda, ritha, ker, ber, amla and kar are more common in these forests. In India, these types of forests are spread in Rajasthan, Gujarat, southwest Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Indore Karnataka.
4). The Littoral and Swamp Forest
These types of forests are found in the delta of the rivers, hence it is called Delta forest. Deltaai land is flat and low due to which the salt water of the sea enters them and in these parts the tidal forest of evergreen is found. With the flow of the salt water of the sea, the wood of these trees becomes rigid and bark becomes alkaline. Their wood is used to make names and bark is used in leather cooking and coloring.
In these forests, palm, coconut, phoenix, niapa, gorne, mangrova and golden trees come in.
These forests are found in delta of Ganga-Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Krishna and Kaveri rivers. Sundari is found in the Ganga and the delta of Brahmaputra, hence it is also known as beautiful forest delta.
5). Montane forest ( Mountainous Forests)
These forests grow on the Himalaya Mountains. They extend from Assam to Kashmir. These forests change along with the height because the difference in the amount of climate elements along with height increases.
Among them, oak, cedar, and muffill tree grow. Temperate angle forests grow from 1800 to 3000 meters high.
Woods of the Himalayan Region
1). White Tower
4). Blue pine
1). Rose Wood
WILDLIFE OF INDIA
Wildlife refers to all kinds of plants and animals, which are found in forests, desert and pastures. For the purpose of conservation and management of wildlife, national funds, habitats and biosphere reserves have been established throughout the country. When wild animals of any particular caste / species are preserved in a regional natural unit under wildlife, then it is called a survey.
When residential migration of organisms is preserved, it is called National Park.
When the overall ecosystem of a particular natural unit is preserved it is called the biosphere reserves.
World Heritage Site
The important site for humanity, which is to be preserved for future generations, is known as World Heritage Site. The protection of such important sites has been initiated by UNISCO. An international treaty for this, which preserves the world cultural and natural heritage which has come into force since 1972.
3 categories under World Heritage Committee
1). Natural heritage site
Such a heritage which is the result of geographical natural construction or the physical and geographical location, the place of scientific importance, the place of geographical importance which is the natural habitat of an extinct organism or vegetation.
2). Cultural heritage site
In this heritage of this category, memorials, architectural buildings, sculptures, paintings, architectural inscriptions, caves and places of global importance, group of buildings … .. that is famous for its historical, beauty, ethnic, anthropological or universal fame. , Is included.
3). Mixed heritage site
Under this category, they come to heritage sites which are important in both natural and cultural forms. India was ranked in the World Heritage List on November 14, 1977.
The geography of India Geography of India in Hindi
7 Natural World Heritage Sites of India
1). Kaziranga National Park
It is in the foothills of Mikir Hills of Nagaon and Golaghat districts of Assam, with the southern coast of the Brahmaputra river. This National Park is known in the world for one-horned (Rhinoceros). The number of rhinos is the highest here. In this park on the banks of Brahmaputra river in Assam, along with rhinoceros are elephants, cheetahs, tigers, deer, dolphins etc.
2). Manas wildlife sanctuary
This site is located in Assam. It has also been declared World Heritage Site along with Project Tiger Reserve, Elephant Reserve etc. This park is famous for its biodiversity. Himalayan bears, tigers, pigmy hogs are found along with one horned rhinoceros in this study.
3). Kevaldevi National Park
This National Park is in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary was declared a National Park in 1982. Its name was changed to Keoladeo Ghna National Park. This park has a natural habitat of about 364 varieties of birds.
Apart from this, many species of tortoises, fish, amphibians are found here. In addition to birds, black deer, python, sambhar, deer, nilgai are found.
4). Western Ghat
This area is also older than the Himalayan Mountains. 1600 km The range of long Western Ghats is spread from Gujarat to Maharashtra, Karnataka, to Goa and Kerala, and Kanyakumari is the last end of it.
5). Sunderban National Park
Located in the Sunderbans Delta area of the river Ganga in the southern part of West Bengal, this park houses the residence of the Royal Bengal Tiger. Sundan Park 2 is surrounded by the rivers Brahmaputra and Ganga.
6). Nanda Devi and Valley of Flower
Nandadevi National Park is located on the Nandadevi mountain of Uttarakhand. This region is the eastern auxiliary river Dhauli Ganges in the water receptive area of Rishiganga. This is the Valley of Flower Park in this area, near the Joshimath near Gholiganga and Alaknanda. Here bears, musk mugs, snow leopards, Himalayan tharars are found.
7). Great Himalayan National Park
The Great Himalayan National Park is the highlight of the Kullu region of Himachal Pradesh. Here bears, musk buckle, snow leopard, Himalayan thar are found. List of Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area Heritage Site was included in 2014.
In 1973, the nations of the world had signed a multilateral treaty, called Sites, for the protection of fauna-animals. The conference is organized every 3 years.
Development of sites
Sites are also called the Washington Convention. Due to this, the treaty was signed on 3 March 1973 in Washington only. Its main purpose is to create such a system in the world, to prevent the extinction of living organisms – trade of animals etc.
AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY OF INDIA
Agriculture is used in English for agriculture, which originated from 2 words in Latin language. Agri meaning soil and culture means agriculture. Thus, agriculture means to cultivate soil for growing crops.
Rice is a tropical crop and its good agriculture is done in India’s monsoon climate. It is also the main food crop of the country. Due to the use of hot and humid climate, it is grown as a kharif crop. Rice is grown on 47% of the total area under foodgrains in the country.
Rice producing area
The plains of Eastern India, which come in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal
After rice, the country’s second most important food is Khaghan. Wheat is cultivated on almost 10% of the country’s total arable land, but its yield per hectare is higher than rice. Most of it is done by agricultural irrigation.
The biggest impact of Green Revolution is on the cultivation of wheat. High productivity and quantity of production has been achieved with the use of Green Revolution in its major producer state of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana.
Barley is calculated in thick grains, but it is also an important food crop of the country. It is sown in dry and sandy soils and the ability to absorb cold and moisture is also high.
Its major producer state is Uttar Pradesh, whereas barley is cultivated on 5% of the state’s agriculture.
Jowar is also a fat grain, which is cultivated without irrigation in the areas of normal rainfall. For this, fertile alluvial or smooth soil is very suitable, but its agriculture is also done in red, yellow, light and heavy loamy and sandy soils.
Millet is also computed in thick grains and it is actually produced in tidal conditions. 40 to 50 cm for its cultivation The rainfall and sandy soils are suitable. Light and continuous rain showers are quite suitable for this. In the Rajasthan and Gujarat, Maharashtra, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, more cultivation of millets is grown.
In relatively dry parts of the country, maize is used as a major Khaghan. For this, long summer season, open sky and good rainfall are necessary.
25 degrees centigrade to 30 degrees centigrade temperature and 50 cm It is well cultivated in the areas of rainfall and deep loam soil with nitrogen. The highest production of maize in the country is in Uttar Pradesh.
The most prominent means of getting proteins for populations of vegetarian food is pulses. Pulses are cultivated under Rabi B Khirib, both crops in the country.
The major pulp crops sown during Rabi crop are the crops. Rabi crops such as tur, gram, peas, lentils etc., while mung, loabi etc. are cultivated during Kharif.
The main feature of India in terms of pulse crops is that their agriculture is done only in unpopular soil and heavy rainfall areas. The gram is limited to the Ganges and the upper valley of the Sutlej rivers and its adjacent states of Madhya Pradesh.
Its dense region is found between Agra and Mirzapur districts of Uttar Pradesh, while Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat are the major producing states.
India is the first place in the world’s sugar cane producing countries and around 40% of the world’s sugarcane is produced.
The production of sugarcane crop takes about one year and due to the sub-tropical crop, the average annual temperature of 20 degrees to 27 degrees and 100 cm 200 cm from The average annual rainfall is appropriate. Lack of rainfall during preparation of grain harvest is very beneficial as it increases the amount of sugar.
Sugarcane of South India is very thick and more rosy due to oceanic equality in coastal climate, but due to inefficiency of soil it is most cultivated in North India.
Rubber cultivation started in the country in 1900 with the efforts of Marquis of Salisbury. In the same year, the rubber seeds from Brazil’s Parra area were planted along the banks of Periyar river in Kerala. For its excellent farming, temperatures of 25 to 32 degrees, excessive rainfall, red smooth loam soil and more human labor are required.
Most of the country’s population is vegetarian. Most farmers of the country maintain one or two milch animals who produce milk for their own use, but the farmers who cultivate more milch animals also sell milk to the cooperatives run by the government.
Milk industry comes to the state list, but an operation flood scheme has been started since 1970, which works in the supervision of the Department of Agriculture and Co-operation.
These breeds are powerful and strong. They are used for carrying bullock carriage, running the plow in the field and carrying goods. The cows of this breed give less milk.
Cows of this breed give more milk and their calf burden loads are not eligible.
Cows of this breed give satisfactory quantity of milk and their calves are also skilled in carrying loads.
Indigenous breed cows are mainly of 3 types.
- Red Sindhi
MINERAL RESOURCES OF INDIA
Minerals are a type of natural resource that is composed of multiple elements combining and received shells. Geothermal property is obtained by mining (depth excavation) / excavation (excavation of the upper layer). Low-depth mines are called open mines and more deep mines are called kupa mines.
Major Minerals of India
Northern Eastern Principals
This area is the most important in terms of Indian mineral. It is called the heart of Indian mineral. In this area 100% of kinematics, iron-ore 93%, coal 84%, chromite 70% are found.
This is India’s second most mineral sector. It extends to the areas of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and Eastern Maharashtra.
Manganese, bauxite, coal, iron ore, graphite, limestone etc. are found mainly in this area.
This area includes the Karnataka Plateau and the high area of Tamil Nadu. Here iron-ore, manganese, chromite etc. are obtained.
Under this area, areas of Aravali and parts of Gujarat come It is known as the area of uranium, asbestos and mineral oils. Here non-ferrous khangines, which mainly include copper, lead, zesta etc.
Major Mineral Resource
1). Iron Ore
Iron ore is obtained in the aquatic and southeastern shells of Kudappa and Gharva era in the country. Among them are magnetite, limonite and litterite ore heads. The highest purity magnetite ore (72% purity) in the country is found in sufficient quantity.
Of the iron ore available in the country, 85% of Hematite, 8% magnetite and 7% other types of iron are found.
Metal manganese, used as a major raw material in the iron steel industry, is found in the sedimentary rocks in the form of dark brown natural incense. Dangerous part of the manganese ore found in the country is found to be 52%. Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are the major manganese producing states of the country.
Here are 15 km Broad and about 205 km There is a gathering of manganis in the long box, which is extended to the Nagpur and Bhandara districts of Maharashtra in the west.
The possession of the land in the country is in the form of veins in the igneous, sedative and transmitted rocks, in which there are many types of substances.
Due to being the best conductor of red and brown mineral copper foundry, more work is done in electrical works. The amount of pure metal in the copper mineral rocks found in India is only available from 1% to 3%.
Lehbhum district of Jharkhand is the most important in terms of copper exploration. From here it is about 140 km to the state of Odisha. Copper mineral gets in the long strip.
Due to the availability of aluminum, the bauxide is calculated in important minerals. Its receipt is in the form of ferrous incense in which the major are – Bommite, Dyshospor and Gibraite. All these types of lates are found in the country, which are rich in red and yellow red meat.
Gold is calculated in precious metals and used as an exchange at international level and in the manufacture of ornaments. It never gets purified; it contains silver and other elements.
There is very little amount of gold in the country, which is why both its demand and value are high. About 98% of the country’s total gold production is obtained from the gold mines of Kolar and Hatti in Karnataka state alone.
Asbestos is a very useful mineral which is found in the form of segments in the igneous and intermittent rocks. Biotite asbestos is pink. The country’s first place in the production of asbestos is in the world. Here, more than 60% of the good quality mica found in the world is produced and most of the country’s production is exported to foreign countries.
Andhra Pradesh has 67% resource stores, followed by 22% in Bihar, 8% in Rajasthan and 3% in Jharkhand.
India’s Geography Article Conclusion
India’s geography is so elaborate that I can not make it in an article …. But still I will try to keep you informed about your country of India, so I am just concluding this article and In the future, I will update this article so that I can include those remaining topics as well.